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Long-Term Ecosystem Research in Europe

Modelled processes

Here we list the processes modelled by the selected models.

Model list

 

Biome-BGC

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Soil temperature

Precipitation routing

Snow water (accumulation and melting)

Soil water (drainage and runoff)

Evaporation from soil and wet leaves

Canopy evapotranspiration

Water outflow

Radiation

Sunlight interception by leaves and penetration to ground

Photosynthesis: daily fluxes (phenology)

 

Maintenance respiration

N uptake, deposition and fixation

Growth respiration

Distribution of carbon and nitrogen to growing plant parts

N leaching

Phenology

Plant decomposition

Carbon allocation

Plant mortality

Fire

One dimensional model: no cell interaction

No competition between PFTs

Mass balance check

 

CAST

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Monthly precipitation

Monthly evaporation

Monthly temperature

Frozen ground

Tilling

 

Carbon aggregation and disaggregation processes

Carbon fractionation in five carbon pools

Carbon degradation

POM decomposition

Leaching of HUM and BIO

Carbon turnover

Dynamic determination of bulk density and porosity

 

CLM

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Canopy hydrology

Snow hydrology (accumulation and melt, compaction, water transfer between layers)

Surface runoff, storage, and infiltration

Soil water (Redestribution of water within the column, sub-surface drainage)

Groundwater-soil water interactions

Glacier runoff

Lake temperatures and fluxes

River runoff routing

Canopy radiative transfer

Momentum, Sensible heat and latent heat fluxes

- Radiative fluxes: Absorption, reflection and transmittance of solar radiation

Absorption and emission of longwave radiative fluxes

Heat transfer in soil and snow

Urban energy balance and climate

Dynamic global vegetation

Carbon and nitrogen pools,

Vegetation carbon and nitrogen allocation, and respiration

External Nitrogen Cycle (including deposition, biological fixation, denitrification, leaching, losses due to fire)

Methane production, oxidation, and emissions

Carbon isotopes

Photosynthesis & stomatal conductance

Vegetation phenology

Soil and litter decomposition

Plant mortality

Fire ignition and suppression

Carbon isotope fractionation

4 land units (glacier, lake, urban, vegetated (+ crop)

16 PFTs (including bare ground) + 1 for irrigation model + 6 form crop model

Columns for soil and snow layers

Transient land cover change

Crop dynamics and irrigation

Urban model

Dust mobilization and deposition

Land cover and land use change

 

COUP

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Soil water flow

Surface water

Drainage and deep percolation

Salt tracer

Irrigation

Potential transpiration

Interception

Snow dynamics

Soil heat processes

Soil evaporation

Radiation processes

Plant water processes

Root water uptake

Nitrogen above ground processes

Carbon above ground processes

Nitrogen below ground processes

Carbon below ground processes

One dimensional model with variable soil layers

 

HYDRUS

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Flow equation

Hydraulic properties

Soil hydraulic functions

Hysteresis

Water mass transfer

Water flow

Solute transport

Heat transport

Root water uptake

Root solute uptake

 

INCA

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Hydrological mass balance

In-stream processes

 

Nitrogen mass balance

Dilution

Natural decay

Land use change

 

JULES

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Soil hydrology

Soil moisture

Canopy hydrology

Surface hydrology (infiltration, surface runoff)

Snow hydrology(zero or multi-layer, snow albedo)

Soil water fluxes

Soil hydraulic characteristics

Soil moisture heterogeneit

Surface energy balance

Momentum and heat fluxes

Canopy heat capacity

Photosynthesis & stomatal conductance

Surface evaporation (Soil, canopy, snow, bare soil)

Albedos (all-band and spetral)

Urban energy balance

Soil thermal characteristics and thermodynamics

Canopy radiation interception

Sunfleck penetration

Upscaling to canopy (stomata or leaf)

Vegetation dynamics (growth and competition, biophysical parameters)

Leaf phenology

Canopy layer photosynthetic capacity

Leaf biochemistry

Ozone effects on photosynthesis

Plant respiration

Soil carbon

Methane emissions from wetlands

Vegetation carbon content and Leaf area Index

5 PFTs plus four non-vegetated types (urban, inland water, bare soil, land ice)

several PFTs per land grid boxes possible

Columns for soil and snow layers

 

ORCHIDEE

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Water budget

Evapotranspiration and evaporation

Surface runoff

Water fluxes in the soil (soil moisture and drainage)

River runoff routing

Irrigation

Interactions with floodplains

Snow pack processes

Interactions with groundwater tables

Surface energy balance

Sensible and latent heat

Soil heat flux,

Solar, infrared, net radiation

Vegetation dynamics

Photosynthesis & stomatal conductance

Carbon allocation

Autotrophic respiration

Heterotrophic respiration

Phenology

(leaf onset and senescence)

Turnover

Fire

13 PFTs, (10 for natural vegetation, 2 for C3 and C4 crops, bare soil)

Different PFTs

 

SWAT

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Atmospheric water

Snow cover and melt

Precipitation

Humidity

Surface runoff

Evapotranspiration

Soil water

Groundwater (Recharge, Base flow, Height, Deep Aquifer)

Water quality

Water routing

Water bodies

Solar radiation

Temperature

Wind speed

Growth cycle

Optimal growth

Nitrogen

Phosphorus

Pesticides (incl. transport, in-stream transformations)

Bacteria (incl. transport, routing)

Carbon

Nutrient transport

Watershed based

Division into subbasins

Sediment erosion

Management (general, water, septic systems)

Urban areas

 

VSD+ suite

model details...

Hydrology

Energy

Biopyhysical vegetation processes

Biochemical processes

Surface characterization

Other

Percolation (net precipitation)

Cation exchange

Carbonate equilibrium

Al-hydroxide equilibrium

Turnover of soil organic matter

N immobilisation

N mineralisation

Nitrification

Denitrification

Input: S deposition, N uptake, fixation, deposition, litterfall, Base cation net uptake, deposition, weathering

Single soil layer

Mass balance

Charge balance